Sunday, 23 February 2014 23:00

Chronology of african history

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30 million years agoAegytopithecuspossible candidate for the earliest ancestor of hominids and pongids, exists in the Fayum Depression in Egypt

10 million to million years agoHominids move from the forest to the savannas  of EastAfrica

million years agoHominids and pongids separate

million years agoSahelanthropus tchadensis lives in modern-day Chad

4.millioyearagoArdipithecusramiduliveiAwasareomodern-day Ethiopia

3 million years ago: Australopithecus afarensis lives in Ethiopia  and Chad

3 million years ago: Sahara  Desert is fertile and rich land with tall trees and green meadows

2 to 3 million years ago: Homo habilis alive

2.3 million years ago: Homo erectus survives in Asia as recently as 53,000 years ago

250,000 years  ago:  Appearance of Homo sapiens,  possessing  language  and  the ability to name

50,000 years ago: Cave paintings  show  organization of settlements  and  establish- ment of group life

50,000 and  12,000 years ago: Wurm/Wisconsin glaciations  do not  affect Africans directly

38,000 years ago: Blombos Cave, in South Africa, has decorated ochre blocks and polished spearheads

26,000 years ago: Evidence of fishing hooks, hand axes, and stone scrapers in the Congo basin

10,000 BCE: People arrive in the Nile Valley before this time and introduce ideas of using wild grasses as food, and new religions as well as clan deities

10,000 BCE: Africans perfect the techniques  of hunting,  fishing, and gathering  and are at the dawn of farming 

8000 BCE: Rise of the Gerzean culture period

6000 BCE:  End  of  Weichsel/Wisconsin/Wurm Ice Age results in population displacement

6000 BCE: Africans began living by the planned cultivation and harvesting of food

6000–1000 BCE: Sahara Desert expands

5000–4000 BCE: Rise of the Badarian culture period

4000–3000 BCE: Rise of Kush

3800–3100 BCE: Oldest  tombs  appear  in Qustul  in Nubia  showing evidence of the first monarchy in Kush

3400 BCE: Unification  of Kemet, which consists of 42 different ethnic groups, under the rule of Per-aa Narmer;  unification lasts 3000 years

3400 BCE: Writing  invented  in Kemet and  appears  on many surfaces,  most  popu- larly papyrus

3400–2700 BCE: Thinite Period, consists of the first two dynasties

3400–2600 BCE: Archaic Period 

3300–3200 BCE: Writing found on a group of small bone or ivory labels

3200–3000 BCE: Protodynastic Period

3100 BCE: Cuneiform writing in clay tablets in Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq

3100–2890 BCE: First Dynasty of Kemet 

3000 BCE: Natural change of climate: Sahara dries up and entire communities virtu- ally disappear 

3000 BCE: Peoples migrate  to form  the Sahelian  peoples  on the edge of the rain- forests and the Amazighs in the north

3000 BCE: Lush pastures  and fertile grazing areas of the Great  Lakes region attract numerous ethnic groups of herders and farmers from the north  and east

2920–2575 BCE: Early Dynastic Period in Kemet

2890–2686 BCE: Second Dynasty in Kemet

2686–2613 BCE: Third Dynasty in Kemet

2685–2000 BCE: Old Kingdom in Kemet

2667–2648 BCE: Saqqara Pyramid constructed as a step pyramid,  the oldest form of architecture

2613–2494 BCE: Fourth  Dynasty  in Kemet, dominated by the building  projects  at Giza

2560 BCE: Pyramid known  as the Great Pyramid built for Per-aa Khufu

2498–2345 BCE: Fifth Dynasty in Kemet

2414 BCE: Ptahotep, the father of ethical doctrines,  wrote the first book  on what it means to grow old

2345–2183 BCE: Sixth Dynasty in Kemet

2200 BCE: Collapse of the central government  in Kemet

2200–2040 BCE: First Intermediate Period in Kemet

2183–2160 BCE: Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in Kemet

2160–2125 BCE: Ninth  and Tenth Dynasties in Kemet

2125–1985 BCE: Eleventh Dynasty reunites the country

2061 BCE: Per-aa Mentuhotep II, the Great Unifier, comes into power and is renamed Nebhotepre, the Son of Ra, then Sematawy, He who unifies the Two Lands

2040–1785 BCE: Middle Kingdom in Kemet

2040–1785 BCE: Classical  period  of Kemetic history  so-named  as a result  of the following   publications:  the  Coffin   Texts   on  the  coffins  of  Meseheti   and Djefaihapy,  Instructions of Kagemni, Maxims of Djedefhor, Admonitions, Instructions for Merikare, Maxims of Ptahhotep, Kemyt,  Satire of Trades, Instructions to the Vizier, Prophecy of Neferti,  Loyalist  Instruction, Instructions of a Man  to his Son, Instructions of Amenemope I, Drama  of the Coronation, the Memphite Drama,  the Tale of Isis and Ra, the Tale of Horus  and Seth, the Destruction of Humanity, Dispute of a Man with his Ba, the Teachings of Khakheperreseneb, and  more  written  documents such as letters,  administrative texts, autobiographical accounts,  historical notes, medical and mathematical treatises,  veterinary  fragments,  poetry, and priestly rituals

2040–1785 BCE: Kemet conquers  Nubia

 1996 BCE: 256 Odus of Yoruba  compiled or created by Agboniregun, or Orunmila

1991 BCE: Sehotipibre,  a national philosopher, argues that loyalty to the king is the most important function  of a citizen

1991 BCE: Amenemhat, the first cynical philosopher, warns  his readers  to be wary of those who call themselves friends

1991–1802 BCE: Twelfth Dynasty in Kemet

1991 BCE: Sobekneferu,  first certain female ruler of Kemet

1990 BCE: Merikare, a philosopher, writes on the value of speaking  well and using common  sense in human  relationships

1962 BCE: Per-aa Amenemope  assassinated

1802 BCE: Thirteenth Dynasty in Kemet

1800–1600 BCE: Second Intermediate Period

1700–600 BCE: Height of kingdom  of Kush

1633 BCE: Hyksos control  the north  of Kemet

1570–1085 BCE: New Kingdom in Kemet founded  by Ahmose

1570 BCE: Royalty and nobles receive grand ritual burials similar to those the Per-aa received

1570 BCE: Per-aa Ahmose comes into power at the age of 10

1559 BCE: Kemet engages the Nubians and Hyksos in battle

1458  BCE: Per-aa  Hatshepsut’s (woman  reigning  as a king) reign ends and  Per-aa Tuthmoses III regains the throne  at the age of 22

1400 BCE: Amenhotep, son of Hapu,  a priest, vizier, philosopher, and master of the ancients is the second living human  in Africa to be deified

1370–1352 BCE: Rise of Per-aa  Amenhotep, the wealthiest  and  most  feared of all kings, challenges the ruling theocracy

1378 BCE: Per-aa Amenhotep IV becomes king in his own right

1340 BCE: Duauf,  an educational philosopher, cherishes  the idea of learning  and writes that the young must learn to appreciate books

1300 BCE: Per-aa Akhenaten, born Amenhotep IV, believes that the god Aten is the sole god, changes the religious doctrine  of Kemet and moves the capital city

1318–1316 BCE: Per-aa Ramses I reigns, beginning construction of the massive hypostyle hall at Karnak

1318–1298 BCE: Per-aa  Seti I reigns, dealing firmly with revolting  nations  in Asia by dividing his armies and building the temple of Ausar at Abydos

1316 BCE: Nineteenth Dynasty in Kemet

1298–1232 BCE: Per-aa Ramses II, the Great,  reigns, both a magnificent  leader and commander-in-chief, first to build a temple for a woman

1277 BCE: Hittite  king sends a silver tablet  to Ramses swearing  eternal  peace, the treaty lasting for 50 years

1200 BCE: Knowledge of iron smelting spreads from East Africa to other regions of Africa and the world, giving Africans authority over the land, but also a transfor- mation  in warfare

1000 BCE: Sahara too dry to sustain a huge population

1000 BCE: By this time, Kush has conquered all of Nubia

1000–900 BCE: Napata Dynasty in Nubia,  often referred to as Kush

780–760 BCE: King Alara reigns in Nubia

760–747 BCE: King Kashta,  named Maatre at coronation, reigns in Nubia,  extends the rule of Kush to modern-day Aswan

730 BCE: Tefnakht attempts to challenge Piankhy

747 BCE: Piankhy marries daughter of Alara and becomes Per-aa, eventually ruling over Nubia  and Kemet

750–590 BCE: Resurgent  kingdom  in Kemet

700–600 BCE: Phoenicians  settle in Carthage on Africa’s north  coast

690 BCE: Per-aa Sennacherib  murdered by his sons

690–664 BCE: Taharka reigns as Per-aa

671 BCE: Esarhaddon, an Assyrian,  invades Kemet directly and forces many Delta princes to take on Assyrian names and rename their towns

666 BCE: Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, leads army pillaging as far south as Waset

620–600 BCE: Per-aa Anlamani rules Nubia  and Kemet

609–594 BCE: Per-aa Psammetichus  I and Neko  attempt to push the boundaries of Kemet into Asia but fail

605 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar, heir to the throne  of Babylon, meets the forces of Kemet in Carchemish  and destroys them

600 BCE: Thales of Miletus,  a Greek philosopher, is the first Greek philosopher to study in Kemet

600–580 BCE: Per-aa Aspelta rules Nubia  and Kemet

594–588 BCE: Per-aa Psammetichus  II reigns in Nubia  and Kemet

588–568 BCE: Per-aa  Apries reigns in Nubia  and  Kemet and  is overthrown when the people of Kemet become outraged after the failure of an expedition

525 BCE: Persia invades Kemet, becoming  the third  force to invade the Nile Valley from the outside

518  BCE: Darius  I comes to Kemet from  Persia to settle some unrest  the Persian governor  cannot  handle

510 BCE: Carthage signs trade treaty with Rome

500 BCE: Camel replaces the horse as the main mode of transportation

500 BCE: Crop growers enter the Congo region in low numbers

500 to 200 BCE: Axumite Empire enters Dawning  Era

491 BCE: Xerxes arrives in Kemet

480 BCE: Syracuse army defeats Carthaginian army, preserving Sicilian city-states

450 BCE: Herodotus goes south up the Nile as far as Elephantine

415–413 BCE: Peloponnesian War, Athenians  attack  Syracuse

409 BCE: Hannibal destroys city of Himera  and takes Selinus

406 BCE: General Himilco destroys Acragas, modern-day Agrigento

400 BCE–350 CE: Kush demonstrates power through architecture

400 BCE–1400 CE: Kush occupies Jenne-Jeno,  a major trans-Saharan trade area on the Niger River in ancient Mali

378–361 BCE: Per-aa Nectanebo reigns in Egypt

348 BCE: Carthage signs new trade treaty with Rome 

341 BCE: Per-aa  Nectanebo II deserted  by Greek mercenaries  and  defeated  by the Persians

341–338 BCE: Per-aa Artaxerxes III Othos  terrorizes his own people, the people of Kemet

338–335 BCE: Per-aa Oarses follows his father’s footsteps and terrorizes  the people of Kemet

335–332 BCE: Bogoas, a eunuch, poisons  Artaxerxes and Oarses and offers the throne  to Darius  III Codoman, who accepts and forces Bogoas to take  his own poison

310–307 BCE: Agathocles, lord of Syracuse, threatens Carthage and other African shore towns

306 BCE: Carthage signs trade treaty with Rome

300 BCE: Ghana  is formed  by a group  of people  (probably Soninke) and forms a trading kingdom  near the upper waters of the Niger

285 to 247 BCE: Greek  Per-aa  Ptolemy  II Philadelphos builds  the  Pharos  in Alexandria and is a patron of the library

284–275 BCE: Queen Bartare reigns in Nubia

264–241 BCE: First Punic War, Carthage loses all possessions in Sicily

247–222 BCE: Greek Per-aa Ptolemy III Euergetes reigns while Kemet faces famine

218–201 BCE: Second Punic War, Carthage is defeated

218 BCE: Hannibal begins his quest for victory

216 BCE: Rome meets Hannibal in battle

212 BCE: Hasdrubal defeats Roman  army

210  BCE: P. Cornelius  Scipio recovers what  Romans  had  lost and  takes  Carthago Nova

209–182 BCE: Greek Per-aa Ptolemy V Epiphanes  attempts to restore ancient temples in Kemet

207 BCE: Carthaginians lose almost all dominions  in Spain

204 BCE: Scipio conquers  Spain from Carthage

200 BCE to 99 CE: Axumite Empire enters Glowing Era

196 BCE: Hannibal escapes Carthage and joins Antiochus  in Ephesus

183 BCE: Hannibal poisons himself to avoid death by the sword of another

177–155 BCE: Queen Shanadakete reigns in Nubia,  the first significant female ruler in world history

160 BCE: South  wall of the funerary  chapel  of pyramid  N11  at Meroe  shows  an inscription  of Nubian Queen  Shanadakete, the  painting  showing  her husband seated behind her

149–146 BCE: Third Punic War resulting in total destruction of Carthaginian power

122 BCE: New city, Colonia  Junonia, founded  where Carthage stood,  but soon fails

45 BCE: Cleopatra has Ptolemy XIV poisoned  and her son Ptolemy XV elected to the co-regency

40-10 BCE: Queen  Amanirenas  reigns in Nubia,  fights Caesar’s  army  and  keeps Nubia  free from Roman  control

36 BCE: Cleopatra has third  child by Mark  Antony,  Cleopatra Selene, while Mark Antony marries Octavia

30 BCE: Mark  Antony loses the battle of Actium

30 BCE: Octavian claims the title “Emperor Augustus”  and  brings  Egypt into  the Roman  Empire as a province

30 BCE: Cleopatra dies and Rome rules Egypt 

26–20 BCE: Queen Amanishakete reigns in Nubia First century CE: Plutarch  writes the best-recorded version of the legend of Ausar

 25–41 CE: Queen Amanitore  reigns in Nubia

83–115 CE: Queen Amankihatashan reigns in Nubia

99–900 CE: Axumite Empire Brilliant Era, and Axum is deeply Christian

100–200 CE: Nubia  becomes occupied by Nobatae

139 CE: Record  of the synchronization of the first day of the solar  year and  the rising of Sirius

220 CE: Axum rises to power as an empire

280–300 CE: Heliodorus, a Greek, writes a historical  novel, Aethiopica

290 CE: Axumite  Empire defeats Nubia  and becomes the greatest  empire in Africa at  this  time;  begins  to  use natural resources  for  everyday  purposes  such  as minting coins

300s CE: Ethiopians  adopt  Christianity as official religion

350 CE: Axumite Empire defeats Meroe

421 CE: Roman  emperors  tear down Carthaginian temple dedicated  to Tanit

439–533 CE: Carthage becomes the capital of the Vandals

500–1000 CE: Europe  enters the White Ages when a fog hovers over learning  and small communities of priests keep literacy alive

528–575 CE: Axumite Empire invades Arabia and rules Yemenite area

533 CE: Carthage recovered for the Byzantine Empire by Belisarius for 150 years

610 CE: Muhammad’s work as a prophet begins

622 CE: Muslim era

622 CE: East coast of Africa becomes popular with Arabs, Persians, Indians, Indonesians, and  Chinese  and  becomes  a melting  pot  for those  facing religious persecution in their own countries

622 CE: Heraclius  begins expedition  to Cilicia to rescue the Holy  Rood  and  take portions of the Roman  Empire back from the Persians

622 CE: Muhammad makes  flight  from  Mecca  to  Medina  to  prepare  for war  to conquer  Arabia and the shrine of the Ka‘aba

629 CE: African leaders in Egypt invite General  Al-As to help drive Romans  out of Africa

631 CE: Cyrus, leader of the campaign to stamp out Coptic religion, lands in Alexandria causing the Coptic  patriarch, Benjamin, to flee, and begins persecut- ing the Copts (October) while searching for Benjamin

632 CE: Muhammad calls for war against the Roman  Empire

639 CE: (December  12)  General  Amir  ibn  al-As celebrates  the  Muslim  Day  of Sacrifice in Egypt

640 CE: Amir’s army  expands  as many  Bedouins  join  the  campaign  against  the Romans

651 CE: Makurra kingdom  of Nubia  defeats the Muslim army

698 CE: Carthage destroyed  by the Arabs and  rebuilt  under  the strict  influence of the Arab Muslims

700 CE: Arabs have succeeded in taking  all of North Africa as Africans who main- tain their traditional beliefs become exhausted by the burdens  of their conquerors

700 CE: Indonesians migrate  to  the  island  of Madagascar, where  the  Malagasy already live

800 CE: By this time the area  between  the Niger  River and  the town  of Gao,  the most important city, was known  as Songhay, with the capital city as Kukiya

900 CE: Beginning of formation of states in Yoruba

900 CE: Persians from Shiraz marry Somali women and develop the Shirazi culture

900 CE: Zanj,  the entire Swahili coast, is controlled from Sofala

900s CE: People of Zanj are already wearing iron ornamentation

909 CE: Amazigh Shiites, the Fatimids, pull together  the Amazighs and Tamascheks and take North Africa back from the Arabs

1000 CE: Hausa  city-states came into existence in present Nigeria

1000 CE: Mais, kings of Kanem-Borno, convert to Islam, Mai Hume  being the first to make the hajj to Mecca

1000 CE: Sungbos’ Eredo constructed in Nigeria

1000 CE: Yoruba  perfect the town type of government

1000 CE: Zimbabwe is a thriving  and  powerful  kingdom  through the  fifteenth century,  with its rise between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries

1000–1200 CE: Much of eastern Central  Africa from Zambia to Lake Malawi participates in Luangwa,  the later Iron Age culture

1054 CE: Almoravids  capture  Audoghast, a powerhouse city in Ghana

1056 CE: Almoravids  capture  Sijilmasa, the main northern trading  center for West African gold

1067 CE: Al-Bakri, a Spanish Arab, writes about  Tunka  Manin,  a Ghanaian

1076 CE: Almoravids  capture  Kumbi Saleh

1087 CE: Abu Bakr assassinated  while trying to suppress a revolt

1100 CE: Al-Idrisi writes that Manan and Njimi in Kanem-Borno  are occupied

1100 CE: Rise of Katsina,  a principal  city-state  in the  trans-Saharan trade,  and Kano becomes established  as the largest city in northern Nigeria,  with a manu- facturing  and craft center

1100s CE: Nigerian  Benin develops  centralized  state  system to draw  surrounding villages into one unit and develops kingship system

1100s CE: Ife develops kingship system

1134 CE: Sayf bin Dhi Yazan marries into the lineage of the Mai Kanem and creates the Saifawa Dynasty in Kanem-Borno, which lasts until 1846

1171–1250 CE: Period of the Ayyubids

1172 CE: Nubians attack  Egypt when Ayyubids come into power

1180 CE: Soso soldier overthrows Soninke dynasty of Wagadu

1199 CE: Peul takes control of kingdom of Diara, an important province of Wagadu

1200 CE: Allah is the supreme ruler in Egypt

1203 CE: Sumanguru declares  himself king in Ghana  and  surrounds Kumbi  Saleh and destroys it

1240 CE: Until this time, Kumbi Saleh in Ghana  is the largest city in western Africa, fending off enemies who want access to its lucrative trade

1240 CE: Hostel erected in Cairo for students  from Kanem-Borno

1250–1517 CE: Period of the Mamluks

1255 CE: Sundiata  Keita, emperor  of Mali, dies

1270–1285 CE: Kebra  Nagast, the  Book  of the  Glory  of the  Kings of Ethiopia, created  during  the  revival  of the  Solomonic  line of kings  during  the  reign  of Yekuno Arnlak

1294 CE: King Karanbas’  installation to the throne  in Nubia  marks  the conversion of Christian Nubia  to Islam

1300 CE: Mali Empire at its height, while the Arabic language and script become instruments for administration, law, and commerce

1300–1384 CE: The Arab Chihab  Addine Abul-Abass  Ahmad  ben Fadhl al-Umari writes information about  the great Malian  Mansa  Kankan  Musa and records his interviews with Mansa  Kankan  Musa about  his brother, Abubakari II, the previ- ous mansa, who may have reached the Americas before Columbus 

1300 CE: Kanem-Borno, stretching across Libya, Chad, and Niger, pressured  by Bulala people, undergoes  “era  of instability”

1304 CE: The Arab Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Battuta,  also known  as Shams ad- Din, visits the lands of every Muslim  ruler of his time, travels across Africa, and dictates his accounts,  which become known  as the Travels (Rihala) of Ibn Battuta

1311 CE: Emperor Mansa  Abubakari II sends one thousand boats across the Atlantic; in 1312 he abandons his throne and sets sail with another thousand boats

1324  CE: Mansa  Kankan  Musa,  leader of the Mali Empire,  takes  a hajj to Mecca but does so with the style of a king, bringing international attention to Mali

1332–1395 CE: Ibn Khaldun  writes Muqaddimah or “Prolegomena,” an analysis of historical  events that  creates and continues  stereotypes  but sets a list of rulers in Mali until 1390

1337 CE: Mansa  Musa  dies, leaving the  throne  to  his son  Mansa  Maghan, who allows the empire to unravel

1339 CE: Mali first appears  on a “map  of the world” as a significant empire

1367 CE: World  map shows road  from Mali through the Atlas Mountains into the western Sudan

1380 CE: Kintu, the first king of Baganda, is crowned

1390 CE: Cheng  Ho  (Sheng He) of the  Chinese  Ming  Dynasty  visits the  Swahili coast after the city-states reassert their independence

1400 CE: Timbuktu becomes a major learning center for Muslim scholars

1400 CE: Mai Ali Gaji ends political troubles of the Seifawa Dynasty of Kanem-Borno

1400s CE: Phiri clan marries into the Banda clan and forms the Nyanja

1400s CE: Kingdom of Asante rises

1400s CE: Bito dynasty rises to power in Baganda and Bunyoro

1420 CE: Nyatsimbe Mutota founds Mutapa in the area of Dande in the Mazoe Valley

1415 CE: Portugal  captures  Ceuta  and  forces African  prisoners  to  reveal details about  the African gold trade flaunted  by Mansa  Musa

1431–1433 CE: Cheng  Ho’s sailors  reach  as far down  the coast  as western  South Africa

1433 CE: Tamascheks seize Timbuktu

1440 CE: Oba Ewuare reigns in Nigerian  Benin

1440s CE: Portuguese  ships land on the West African coast and take several dozen Africans to the king in Lisbon

1450 CE: Site of Great Zimbabwe is abandoned

1453 CE: Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks

1456 CE: Mali wilts away into the Songhay Empire

1464 CE: Sonni Ali Ber ascends as king of Songhay

1466 CE: Battle for Jenne (which the Mali Empire had tried to take 99 times) takes 7 years, 7 months, and 7 days to fall to Sonni Ali Ber

1468 CE: Sonni Ali Ber invades Timbuktu

1472 CE: Portuguese  bring  a ship to the Bight of Benin, exposing  Nigerian  Benin people to Europeans  for the first time

1480 CE: Kongo people willing to build partnerships with Portuguese

1482 CE: Diogo Cão, a Portuguese  sailor, visits the mouth  of the Congo

1482 CE: Portuguese  begin to build fortress at El Mina,  in modern-day Ghana

1484 CE: Mossi leave the city of Walata, a northern point for the Mali Empire, in ruins

1485 CE: Thousands of people employed in Jenne at the university,  and in schools, the trades,  commerce, and business

1480s CE: Sunni Ali Ber forces Mossi back south out of Niger 

1485–1554 CE: Leo Africanus, also known  as Al-Hasan  ibn Muhammed el-Wazzan ez-Zayyat,  writes  of his journeys  in Africa in The  History  and Description of Africa, which also includes an impressive account of the ancient city of Timbuktu

1492 CE: Sonni Ali Ber drowns  in the  Niger  River,  his son,  Sonni Bakori  Da’as becomes king, the quest to end Islamic onslaught ends and Africa is not unified

1492 CE: Spain expels thousands of Africans and Jews

1492 CE: Columbus sails to the Americas  and  convinces  Europeans  to risk their money and their lives to take Africans to the Americas and enslave them

1492–1885 CE: Europe’s continental power unchallenged by any area of the world

1493 CE: Sonni Bakori  Da’as is overthrown by Muhammed Toure,  a Muslim  and general-in-chief  of the army of Gao, and killed at the battle of Anfao

1493 CE: Muhammed Toure takes the dynastic name Askia Mohammed Toure and rules the Songhay Empire until 1529

1493 CE: First  European settlement  founded  at  Isabella  on  the  north  coast  of

Hispaniola, near Puerto Plata

1495 CE: Askia Mohammed makes a pilgrimage to Mecca and strengthens Islam as the dominant religious tendency in the Songhay Empire

1496 CE: Christopher Columbus’  brother Bartholomew discovers  gold  in  the Ozama  River valley and founds the city of Santo Domingo

1498 CE: Askia Mohammed declares a jihad on the Mossi

 1500 CE: Zazzau  region founded,  and the capital, Zaria, becomes a major center for the slave trade in the seventeenth century and eventually the name for the region

1500 CE: Hausa  city-states  control  the routes  to Akan,  Aïr, Gao,  Jenne, Kukikya, and Borno

1500s CE: Rise of Oyo in Yoruba  causes decline of Ife dominance

1500s CE: Portuguese  divert Shona and Swahili gold trade to the Indian Ocean and battle with the Swahili

1500s CE: Akan states become militarily and economically  strong

1500s CE: Mwato Yamvo dynasty comes into power in Lunda-Luba Empire

1504 CE: Fall of the Alwa Kingdom in Nubia

1504 CE: Oba Esaghie comes into power in Nigerian  Benin

1504–1526 CE: Mai  Idris  Katarkambi reigns in Manem-Borno, liberating  Njimi from the Bulala

1505 CE: Askia Mohammed sends a second expedition  to battle Mossi and succeeds

1505 CE: Mauritius occupied by Portuguese

1513 CE: Armed forces of Songhay defeat Hausa  states of the Niger River as far as Lake Chad

1513 CE: Leo Africanus writes an account  of the Songhay Empire

1520 CE: History  of Kilwa written  in KiSwahili

1520 CE: Francesco Alvarez, a Portuguese  priest, visits Ethiopia  and claims they still have 150 churches in old castles but not among the masses

1526 CE: Mai Muhammed stops revolt by the Bulala

1527 CE: Malandela settles at Mandawe Hill and has two sons, Qwabe  and Zulu, the founder  of the Zulu clan

1529 CE: Askia Musa overthrows his father,  Askia Mohammed

1530 CE: Portuguese  travel  up the Zambezi  River and conquer trading towns of Sena and Tete and establish links with Munhumutapa

1536–1573 CE: Amina may have reigned as Queen of Zazzau

1537 CE: Ismail overthrows Askia Musa and frees his father

1540 CE: Kalonga  dynasty  founds  the Lundu  dynasty  among  the Manganja of the Shire valley and the Undi dynasty among the Chewa

1545 CE: Mai Ali of Kanem-Borno  fights with kingdom  of Kebbi in Hausaland

1546 CE: Mai Ali dies

1546–1563 CE: Dunama reigns in Kanem-Borno

1549–1582 CE: Askia Dawud  reigns in the Songhay Empire

1550 CE: Oba Orhogbua reigns in Nigerian  Benin

1551 CE: Ottoman Turks occupy Tripoli

1553 CE: British arrive in Nigerian  Benin and trade pots and pans for peppercorns

1564–1569 CE: Mai Dala Abdullah  reigns in Kanem-Borno

1569 CE: Dala Abdullah  dies and the reign of Kanem-Borno  is seized by his sister, Queen Aissa Killi

1569 CE: Mai  Idris Alooma,  the greatest  of all mais, reigns in Kanem-Borno  and establishes a reputation for fairness, justice, and sternness

1571 CE: Portuguese  send another army  into the Zambezi  Valley but  are defeated by the Tonga people

1574 CE: Portuguese  force Uteve king  to  pay tribute  at  Sofala on  Indian  Ocean coast

1578 CE: Oba Ehenguda  reigns in Nigerian  Benin

1582 CE: Askia Ishaq II’s forces are defeated by Moroccan army of Pasha

1594 CE: Overthrow of the Songhay Empire

1600 CE: Nigerian  Benin exhausts  its export  of “trouble-making” Africans  and trades only natural resources for foreign goods with the Portuguese

1600 CE: Rise of Changamire’s Rozvi state

1600 CE: Ganye Hessu reigns as king of Dahomey

1600s CE: Denkyira,  in Ghana,  controls  all other  states in Ghana  and is an impor- tant source for trading  gold and humans  with the Dutch at El Mina

1602 CE: O. Dapper,  a geographer from the Netherlands, describes Nigerian  Benin as a well-organized, balanced, structured, and grand city

1603 or 1617 CE: Mai  Idris of Kanem-Borno  dies and  Morocco consolidates  its power over Songhay

1606 CE: Oba Ahuan reigns in Nigerian  Benin

1620 CE: Dako Donu reigns as king of Dahomey

1632 CE: Twenty Africans disembark in Jamestown, Virginia

1638 CE: Mauritius taken over by Dutch

1645 CE: Kingdom of Abomey conquers  the neighboring  kingdom  of Dan and calls the new country  Dahomey,  meaning “in the belly of Dan”

1645 CE: Houegbadja reigns as king of Dahomey

1652 CE: Van Riebeck leads whites into South Africa at the Cape,  introducing the idea of private ownership

1665 CE: 200  years of Portuguese  influence weakens  Congo  kingdom, which falls into warring  factions

1677 CE: Nana  Obiri Yeboa, of the Asante people, dies

1680 CE: Osei Tutu I assumes kingship of the Asante

1685 CE: Akaba reigns as king of Dahomey

1700 CE: Asante conquers  Denkyira,  brings other Akan states into submission,  and controls  the goldfields

1700s CE: Mauritius captured by French

1708 CE: Tegbessu reigns as king of Dahomey

1717 CE: Nana  Opoku, the fighting king, reigns over the Asante

1724 CE: Dahomey  conquers  Allada, the kings of the two nations  being brothers

1727 CE: Dahomey  conquers  Savi and positions  itself to be an important player in the slave trade

1740 CE: Tegbessu reigns as king of Dahomey  and enters into the enslaving interest to gain wealth  and  influence,  trading  humans  for weapons  in order  to capture more Africans from other places

1774 CE: Kpingla reigns as king of Dahomey

1786 CE: Abdul Qadir Kan negotiates an agreement with the French to avoid selling Muslims into slavery as a result of the second jihad in the Hausa  city-states

1787 CE: Andrianampoinimerina reigns in Madagascar

1787 CE: Senzangakona and Nandi  give birth to Shaka, who rises to the highest seat of authority in the Zulu clan

1787 CE: Americans hold Constitutional Convention

1787  CE: British help 400 freed Africans from the United States, Nova  Scotia, and Great  Britain  to  return  to  Sierra Leone  to  settle  the  “Province  of Freedom,” which became Freetown

1789 CE: Agonglo reigns as king of Dahomey

1792 CE: Freetown  becomes one of Britain’s first colonies

1797 CE: Adandozan reigns as king of Dahomey

1798  CE: Napoleon’s  army  uncovers  the  Great  Sphinx  and  the  French  seek to subdue  most  of the Sudan  outside  of the British sphere,  including  Niger,  Mali, Upper Volta, and Chad

1791 CE: Africans revolt against the French in Santo Domingo and choose as leader Toussaint L’Ouverture

 1804 CE: Conflict breaks out between Dan Fodio’s followers and Na Fata’s succes- sor, Yunfa, in the third jihad in the Hausa  city-states

1805 CE: Mzilikazi,  leader and creator  of the state of Zimbabwe, is born

1805 CE: Asante Wars against the British until 1905

1807 CE: British slave trade prohibited on the high seas

1808 CE: Armies of Gobir  have been defeated  and  Dan  Fodio  establishes  a new state with the capital at Sokoto

1810 CE: Radama reigns in Madagascar

1810 CE: Mauritius conquered by British

1811–1812 CE: Fourth  War with the British

1814 CE: Nearly all the Hausa  states overthrown by Fulani-led jihads

1814 CE: Jihads help create largest African state of its kind at the time, the Sokoto Caliphate

1815 CE: Francisco  Felix de Souza,  a Portuguese  slave trader,  assists  Guezo  in seizing the Dahomey  throne  from Adandozan

1816–1840 CE: Mfecane wars fought is South Africa

1816 and 1819 CE: Dingiswayo  leads the Mtetwa against the Ndwandwe

1816 CE: American  Colonization Society sends  its first  ship,  the  Elizabeth,  to Liberia  with  88 emigrants,  three  white  officials, and  supplies,  even though  the Malinke  already lived there.

1818 CE: Seku Ahmadu  Bari attacks  cities of Segu and Jenne, establishes the state of Massina,  and declares himself the twelfth caliph

1818 CE: Guezo reigns as king of Dahomey

1818 CE: French slave trade prohibited on the high seas. 

1818–1819 CE: Fifth  War  with  the  British,  British  intervene  with  two  warring groups in Xhosa, and divide and conquer

1821 CE: Moeshoeshoe, founder  of the Lesotho  nation, moves capital  to a moun- taintop for protection

1824 CE: Shaka Zulu demands  all soldiers remain in the service until their thirties

1827 CE: Fourah  Bay College is established  in Sierra  Leone  and  is the  leading college for English-speaking  Africans on the west coast 

1828 CE: Shaka  Zulu  is murdered by his own  associates, and  his half-brother Dingane becomes king of the Zulu

1828–1830 CE: Umar Tal makes a hajj to Mecca and Medina,  begins spreading  the Tijani and became convinced to lead the fourth  jihad

1834–1835 CE: Xhosa’s Sixth War with the British

1838 CE: (September 16) Boer army of Andries Pretorius  defeats the Zulu nation  at Blood River

1840 CE: Dingane’s brother Mpande becomes king of the Zulu nation  and does not stand up to the Boers for 32 years

1840 CE: France invades the Côte d’Ivoire

1841 CE: Liberia  is turned  over  to  Joseph  Jenkins  Roberts, the  first governor  of African descent

1842 CE: Natal  region becomes a British colony

1844 CE: Menelik  II, governor  of the province  of Shoa in Ethiopia,  leads the most successful campaign  of war against a European colonizing army

1846 CE: British military escort killed by Africans, British start the War of the Axe

1847 CE: Liberia writes a constitution and becomes an independent republic

1849 CE: George  Washington Williams  is born  in Pennsylvania  and  becomes  the first African American protester of the treatment of the Congo people

1858 CE: Glele reigns as king of Dahomey

1858 CE: Europeans  Richard  Burton  and  John  Speke visit the Buganda  kingdom and Great Lakes region in search of the source of the Nile

1861 CE: Umar Tal attacks  and captures  the king of Kaarta,  the king of Segu, and seizes the state of Massina

1862 CE: Said Pasha finds a stele describing Piankhy’s victory over Tefnakht

1863 CE: French declare control  over Porto Novo

1868 CE: Ethiopia  invaded by 5000 British and Indian troops

1868 CE: Rise of Kassai, the ras, or lord, of Tigre, an Ethiopian province

1870s  CE: Kassai submitted to repeated  attacks  from the Egyptian  armies of Ismail Pasha

1870s CE: (late) Mpande’s  son, Ceteswayo,  rejuvenates  the Zulu nation

1876 CE: (March  7–9) Battle of Gura,  Ethiopia  defeats the Egyptian army, which is led by European and American mercenaries

1878  CE: (December)  Ceteswayo  rejects British ultimatum to return  his induna  for trial in British courts

1879  CE: (January  10–11)  British, under  generalship  of Frederic Thesiger, viscount Chelmsford, attack  Zululand

1879 CE: Chelmsford forces take Ulundi and burn the city to the ground

1881 CE: British try to arrest Muhammed Ahmad (Mahdi),  the leader of the fifth jihad

1881 CE: France takes over Tunisia

1881 CE: Muhammad Ahmad,  proclaimed to  be the  Mahdi,  rises in Sudan  and seeks to recover the power of the indigenous  people

1882 and 1883 CE: George Washington Williams writes History  of the Negro Race in America from 1619–1880. Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens, together with a preliminary consideration of the Unity of the Human Family and Historical Sketch  of Africa and an Account of the Negro Governments of Sierra Leone and Liberia

1883 CE: British send 10,000 Egyptians  to attack  the Mahdists in Sudan,  but  are defeated

1884 CE: Governor Gordon sent to Khartoum to oversee evacuation of the city and decides to take a stand 

1884 CE: Germany  invades Togo and Cameroon but the people revolt in February

1884 CE: Massingina uprising in Nyasaland (Malawi)

1884–1885 CE: (November 15,  1884,  to  February  26,  1885)  Berlin Conference, Europe declares war on Africa, dividing Africa among the European powers

1884–1914 CE: African churches flourish in Ethiopia

1885 CE: French occupy Madagascar

1885 CE: Khartoum is starved and overrun  by Mahdists in 1885

1885 CE: Creation of the Mahdist state

1885 CE: Rabih  ibn Fadl Allah,  the conquerer of Borno,  creates  his own  state  in Bahr el-Ghazal

1885 CE: Italy occupies Massawa

1885–1893 CE: “Treaties” negotiated in Nyasaland between  the  African  Lakes Company and various kings of Nyasaland allow British to swindle land from Nyasaland

1885–1887 CE: Ahmadu  Seku, leader  of Tucolor  Empire,  supports the French  in their war against Mahmadu Lamine’s uta Bondu state

1887 CE: Sultan of Zanzibar asks Tippu Tip, a half-African  half-Arab  Muslim slave hunter,  to take over the eastern provinces of Zanzibar

1887 CE: Ethiopians  defeat Italians in the “Dogali  Massacre”

1887: Marcus Garvey was born in Jamaica. 

1888 CE: Enslaved Africans emancipated in Brazil

1889 CE: French army turns on Ahmadu  Seku forces

1889 CE: Gbehanzin reigns as king of Dahomey

1889 CE: French occupy Cotonou

1889 CE: The Tucolor  Empire, led by Ahmadu  Seku, aggressively seeks to establish itself from Dakar  to Bamako

1889 CE: (May)  Italy  claims  a  protectorate over  Ethiopia  after  the  Treaty  of Wuchale (Uccialli), which cedes a portion of Ethiopia  to Italy

1890 CE: Italians,  with the British and French,  advance  on the town  of Adowa  in Ethiopia  and occupy it

1890 CE: John  Dunlop,  an Irishman, invents  the rubber  tyre, fueling the Western need for rubber  from the Congo

1890 CE: British government  declares a protectorate over Zanzibar

1890 CE: George Washington Williams sails to Africa to write about  slavery in the Congo under Henry Morton Stanley

1890 CE: William Sheppard,  an African American, goes to the Congo as a mission- ary and returns  to the USA to lecture about  the slave conditions of the Congo

1890 CE: French defeat city of Segu, but the Tucolor  leader refuses to surrender for the love of his country

1890–1919 CE: Ten newspapers founded in Ghana,  five in Nigeria, and one in Uganda

1891 CE: French invade the Mandika territory, led by Samori Ture,  who retreated so the French would not gain any advantage

1891 CE: Baule of Ivory Coast starts resistance that lasts until 1902

1891 CE: Gbehanzin, king of Dahomey,  starts resistance that lasts until 1894

1892 CE: British invade Ijebu (Yoruba)  and Uganda

1892 CE: Nigerian  Benin enters a “trade and protection” treaty with Britain

1892 CE: French declare to King Gbehanzin that  they will take over kingdom of Dahomey

1892 CE: William Sheppard  enters the capital  of Ifuca in Kuba and is accepted  by the king

1893 CE: Chief Nzansu  of Kasi leads African  rebellions  against  Leopold’s  Force Publique

1893 CE: French invade Guinea and declare it a French colony

1893 CE: Ethiopian resistance blossoms

1894 CE: Agolio Agbo reigns as king of Dahomey,  but is a puppet  for the French

1894 CE: British authorities name Uganda region Uganda Protectorate

1894 CE: After  negotiations  with  Kabeka  Mutesa,   British  place  kingdom of Buganda under British Protectorate

1894–1895 CE: Knut  Svenson, a Swedish officer of the Force Publique,  assembles people who do not  want  to be enslaved in the rubber  plantation business in an open  courtyard under  the pretext  of signing a treaty  or recruiting  laborers  and then kills them

1895 CE: Britain  includes  all of Uganda,  including  Kenya,  under  East  African Protectorate

1895 CE: Kandolo,  a Kuba,  leads a revolt  against  Mathieu Pelzer, a Force Publique base commander, and continues to lead the Kasi region of the Congo for half a year

1896 CE: Menelik II defeats Italian army in Adowa and Italians sign Treaty of Addis Ababa nullifying Treaty of Wuchale

1890–1905 CE: Manjanga Rebellion in Congo

1890s CE: (late) Britain annexes Sudan on behalf of Egypt, gaining complete control over the Nile basin

1895–1907 CE: 50,000 Africans  in Zambesi  Valley escape to Southern  Rhodesia and Nyasaland

1895–1920 CE: Sayyid Muhammed leads Somalis in revolt

1897 CE: Kandolo  is fatally wounded and two of his trusted  aides, Yamba Yamba and Kimpuki, take over and continue  to revolt against the Force Publique until 1908

1897 CE: Mulamba, an African soldier serving under  white soldiers, leads a revolt against the Force Publique

1898 CE: British defeat Abdullah  ibn Muhammed

1898 CE: French defeat Samori’s troops  when they succumb to famine

1898 CE: Nehanda and Kaguvi, leaders of Zimbabwe’s First Chimurenga, are captured by the British and hanged  for fighting against  the unjust  laws imposed by Britain and after Nehanda refuses to accept Christianity

 1900 CE: British declare Protectorate of Northern Nigeria

1900 CE: English sappers  chased  off Tiv land,  Tiv people  resist  domination and engage in the first Tiv–British battle,  which leads to six years of instability

1900 CE: Two  French  armies  converge  and  meet at  Borno,  defeating  and  killing Rabih of Borno

1900 CE: The Asante revolt against  direct taxation, forced labor,  and introduction of Western education

1900 CE: Fadl Allah ibn Rabih  takes over Rabih’s forces and retreats  to northeast Nigeria

1900 CE: (September 30) Yaa Asantewa  War, Asante are defeated

1900 CE: Chilembwe, a Nyasaland native who studied in Britain and the United States, founds the Providence Industrial Mission in Nyasaland

1900, 1902, and 1904 CE: Sudanese revolt against occupation by the Egyptians and the British

1900 CE: Pan-African  Conference  in London

1901 CE: French abolish kingdom  of Dahomey

1903 CE: Ekumeku  rebellion in Nigeria

1904 CE: Herero  people of Southwest  Africa (Namibia) protest  German  occupation

1904–1905 CE: Revolt in Madagascar 

1906 CE: Zulu uprising against rule of British in Natal

1906 CE: Lady Lugard writes A Tropical Dependency

1908–1909 CE: Lobi and Dyula revolt in Mali

1909 CE: Mulama  of Nyasaland leads a resistance movement

1908–1914 CE: Mossi rebellions in Kouddigou and Fada N’gourma

1911 CE: Siofume, a female priestess, and Kiamba, a young man, rise against British in Kenya

1911–1912, 1953, and 1958–1959 CE: Political unrest in Nyasaland

1912 CE: (January  8) African  National Congress,  originally  the  South  African Native National Congress until 1923,  is created in South Africa

1913 CE: Seven medical  students,  influenced  by Ravelojaona, a minister,  start  the VVS (Vy Vato Sakelike) in Madagascar but are suppressed  by the French

1913 CE: Onyango Dande seeks to overturn British rule in Kenya

1913 CE: African National Congress sends delegation  to Britain to protest  the Land Act of 1913

1914 CE: Giriama  of Kenya revolt against British

1914 CE: Sadiavahe, an armed peasant  revolt

1914 CE: Revolts against Europe subside when the First Great European War (also called First World War) begins

1915 CE: Chilembwe  Uprising against British in Nyasaland

1915 CE: British fight Germans  in northern Nyasaland

1915–1916 CE: Rebellion of the Gurunsi  in Upper Volta (Burkina Faso)

1917 CE: Rembe,  a prophet claiming  to  have to  the  power  to  prevent  European bullets killing a person, rises in Uganda

1919 CE: First (Second) Pan-African  Congress directed by W. E. B. DuBois

1920 CE: Mende script, in Sierra Leone, devised by Kisimi Kamala

1920 CE: Leo Wiener writes Africa and the Discovery  of America

1921 CE: Second (Third) Pan-African  Congress

1921 CE: Founding  of the African  National Congress  in South  America  and  the National Association for the Advancement  of Colored  People in the United States

1921 CE: Afro-Cubans begin Negrismo,  celebrating  African  music,  rhythms,  art, folklore,  and literature

1923 CE: Third (Fourth)  Pan-African  Congress

1923: Cheikh Anta Diop was born in Thieytou, Senegal

1925 CE: Raymond Dart, a South African, discovers the skull of a six-year-old  crea- ture in a limestone cave in Taung,  South Africa; the creature  walked on two legs with a forward stoop and was named Australopithecus

1927 CE: Fourth  (Fifth) Pan-African  Congress

1929 CE: Fifth Pan-African  Congress  called for but  denied  by the French  govern- ment and the Great Depression

1930 CE: Bamana  “Ma-sa-ba” syllabary  devised by the Woyo  Couloubayi in the Kaarta  region of Mali

1930 CE: Somali script developed by Isman Yusuf, son of the Somali sultan Yusuf Ali

1931 CE: Admonishment from the League of Nations stops the practice of non- Americo-Liberian forced labor in Liberia

1931 CE: French depose Njoya, an original intellect and brilliant scholar of the nineteenth and twentieth  centuries, king of the Bamun kingdom

1931 CE: Women become affiliated members of the African National Congress

1935 CE: Italians  invade  Ethiopia  to  teach  a lesson  to  the  only  nation  that  has defeated its army

1939 CE: Isaiah Anozie discovers several bronze  objects while digging a cistern to hold water in southeastern Nigeria

1939 CE: Aimé Césaire  publishes  Cahier d’un retour  au pays natal and  coins the term “Négritude” 

1943 CE: Women become full members of the African National Congress.

1944 CE: African National Congress  Youth  League created,  with Nelson  Mandela as a founding  member.

1944 CE: Félix Houphouët-Boigny, son of a Baule king, forms the first agricultural union  with  the aim of securing  better  working  conditions for Africans  in Côte d’Ivoire.

1945 CE: Fifth Pan-African  Congress  is held in Manchester, England;  Pan-African Federation  organized  by Kwame Nkrumahh.

1945 CE: Léopold Sédar Senghor publishes Chants d’Ombre.

1945 CE: Senghor elected to represent  Senegal in the French Constituent Assemblies.

1945–1951 CE: Libya under a United Nations Trusteeship.

1947 CE: African National Congress allies with the Natal  Indian  Congress and the Transvaal Indian Congress to oppose the white government.

1947 CE: Alioune  Diop,  a Senegalese intellectual  living in Paris,  creates  Présence Africaine, a cultural  journal.

1947 CE: General  Council  of the Kikuyu Central  Association  decides to campaign against white usage of Kenyan land.

1948 CE: Afrikaner  political  group  votes  for the  National Party  and  creates  the apartheid policy and Africans are restricted  by their color for the first time on the continent  of Africa.

1948 CE: British force Kikuyu off their land in Kenya.

1948 CE: Egypt fights war in Israel.

1948 CE: Léopold Sédar Senghor publishes Hosties Noires.

1949 CE: White  minority  National Party  comes  to  power  in South  Africa  and Eduardo Chivambo  Mondlane, the  father  of Mozambican independence, and other black students  are expelled from Witwatersrand University.

1950 CE: UN argues that Eritrea should become a part of federated  Ethiopia.

1950 CE:  Kwame  Nkrumahh arrested  and  imprisoned but  wins  a  seat  on  the Legislative Assembly under the colonial administration.

1950s and 1960s CE: Cheikh  Anta  Diop  proposes  that  Africa  is the  cradle  of civilization.

1951 CE: Malinke  receive the right to vote in Libéria.

1952 CE: Dr. Alain Bombard  sails from Casablanca to Barbados  in an African raft, testing the theory of African discovery of the Americas. 

1952 CE: King Jacob  Egharevba  writes  about  the majesty  of Nigérian  Bénin king, Oba Ewuare.

1952 CE: African National Congress joins with other groups in a defiance campaign against apartheid.

1952 CE: Ben Bella pushed out of Algeria.

1952 CE: Egyptian  officers in the British Free Officers Movement overthrow King Farouk  I of Egypt.

1952–1960 CE: Kenya Land Freedom Army (Mau Mau) revolt in Kenya to throw  British settlers off land.

1953 CE: Central  Committee in Kenya renames itself the Council of Freedom.

1953 CE: British-led African Christians become the Kikuyu Home Guard  in Kenya.

1953  CE: (March  26) Mau  Mau  viewed as bloodthirsty after they kill 70 people in the village of Lari, home to British supporters; British retaliate  and kill 125 in the sweep of Aberdare  Forest.

1954 CE: (November 1) Algerian  Front  de Libération Nationale (FLN) guerillas launch a series of attacks  against the French colonial administration.

1954 CE: (February  25)  Gamal  Abdel  Nasser  becomes  président  of Egypt  and appeals to the masses with public works projects such as the Aswan High Dam.

1954 CE: (October 26) Nasser  shot at by Mahmoud Abd al-Latif, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood.

1955 CE: Dr. Hannes  Lindermann sails for 52 days to South America from the Cape Verde Islands, demonstrating the possibility of Africans sailing to South America.

1955 CE: Congress of the People, African National Congress leads people to accept the Freedom Charter, the fundamental document of the anti-apartheid struggle.

1955 CE: A military unit composed  of Sudanese southerners mutinies at Torit. 

1956 CE: 156  members  of the  African  National Congress  arrested  by whites  in South Africa.

1956 CE: Nasser vows to liberate Palestine.

1956 CE: Freedom Charter adopted at a Congress of the People in Kliptown,  South Africa.

1957 CE: Gold Coast becomes independent and chooses the name Ghana.

1957 CE: General  Raoul  Salan,  the French  commander in Algeria,  challenges  the FLN with quadrillage dividing the country  into sectors to be policed by permanently garrisoned  troops  in each sector.

1957 CE: Kwame  Nkrumahh promotes  the  idea  of an  independent West African Federation  and becomes the leader of Ghana.

1957–1960 CE: More than two million Algerians removed from their villages

1958 CE: Conference  of Independent States led by Kwame Nkrumah

1958 CE: Mangaliso  Robert  Sobukwe creates the Pan-Africanist  Congress

1958 CE: Nasser  seeks a merger  between  Syria and  Egypt to be called the United Arab Republic, which is dissolved in 1961

1959 CE: Excavation of Isaiah Anozie’s site in southeastern Nigeria reveals it was a storehouse  for ritual objects

1960 CE: Democratic Republic  of the Congo  establishes  independence and  names Patrice Lumumba prime minister, one of Africa’s most ardent  nationalist leaders

1960 CE: D. T. Niane tells story of Sundiata  Keita in Epic of Old Mali

1960 CE: Côte d’Ivoire gains independence

1960 CE: Dahomey  regains its independence

1960 CE: Senghor elected first president  of Senegal

1960 CE: Virtually all of Africa is free of European control

1960 CE: Pan-African  Congress  peaceful protest  against  the Pass Laws, 69 people killed and 180 injured in the Sharpeville massacre,  Sobukwe is arrested

1960 CE: First African National Congress campaign  against the Pass Laws

1960 CE: African  National Congress  banned  for trying  to carry  out  the Freedom Charter, Nelson Mandela suggests setting up a military wing in the ANC

1960 CE: Kwame Nkrumah becomes the first president  of Ghana

1960 CE: Albert Luthuli,  leader of the African National Congress,  wins the Nobel Peace Prize

1960 CE: Parliamentary conference  agrees  Kenyans  should  have a government based on “one person, one vote” majority  rule

1960 CE: Nigeria gains independence

1961 CE: ANC  agrees to allow  the use of violence and  creates  the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation)

1961 CE: Patrice Lumumba is murdered and Africans in the Congo lose their rights

1961–1974 CE: Angola  struggles  for liberation and  freedom  from  Portugal  until Portuguese  sue for peace

1961 CE: 40,000 Angolans uprooted during the rebellion in Angola

1961 CE: Tanganyika achieves independence and Julius Nyerere becomes prime minister,  Tanganyika later  merges  with  Zanzibar to  become  Tanzania and Nyerere is elected president 

1962 CE: Nelson Mandela arrested

1962 CE: Harold G. Lawrence writes African Explorers  of the New  World

1962 CE: Eritrea decides to end federation and unifies with Ethiopia

1962 CE: (July 1) Algeria gains independence

1962 CE: Frente  de Libertação  de Moçambique (Frelimo)  forms  to challenge  the Portuguese  control  of Mozambique and select Mondlane as its first president

1963 CE: Julius Nyerere is a founding  member of the Organization of African Unity

1964 CE: Mandela and eight other  ANC members  sentenced  to life imprisonment, Mandela incarcerated at Robben Island Prison until 1982, when he is transferred to Pollsmoor  Prison

1964 CE: (October 24)  Kenneth  David  Kaunda  becomes  president  and  founding father of the new republic of Zambia

1964 CE: Nkrumah declares Ghana  a one-party state and himself president-for-life

1965 CE: Sir Abubakar Tafawa  Balewa, of the Nigerian National Alliance, wins elec- tion in Nigeria but the United Progressive Grand  Alliance believes it was rigged

1966 CE: (February  24) Ghana  government  overthrown by United States-sponsored military coup d’état

1966 CE: Hausa  and Igbo create a conservative  political alliance which rules Nigeria

1967 CE: (May  30)  Southeastern region  of Nigeria  secedes as the  independent republic of Biafra under the leadership  of Colonel Oumegwo  Ojukwu

1967 CE: Six-Day War in Egypt, then called the United Arab Republic

1967–1970 CE: Nigerian  Civil War

1968 CE: Creolized Mauritius becomes an independent country

1969 CE: Bantu Stephen  Biko founds  the  South  African  Students’  Organization, which provides legal and medical aid for disadvantaged black communities

1969 CE: Thor Heyerdahl sails from Africa to America in a simple boat,  the Ra II

1969 CE: Sobukwe is released from prison but banished to Kimberley for five years

1969 CE: Bomb is planted  under Mondlane’s desk at Frelimo and kills him

1969–1970 CE: Nasser leads Egypt in war

1970 CE: Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt and builds political relationships that allow Arabs to live in peace with the Jews but is assassinated  after signing a peace treaty with Israel

1972 CE: Richard  Leakey finds skull 1470 near East Turkana in Kenya

1972 CE: Biko founds the Black People’s Convention to aid the social and economic development of black people around Durban and is dismissed from school when elected president  of the BPC

1972 CE: Eritrean  rebels form Eritrean  Liberation Front (ELF) then the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF), led by Osman  Salah Sabbe, former head of the Muslim League

1972 CE: Sudanese peace agreement,  the Addis Ababa Accords, between the south- ern Sudanese insurgents, the Anya Nya, and the Sudan government

1973 CE: Biko is banished to his hometown, King William’s Town in the Eastern Cape

1974 CE: Dinqnesh,  an Australopithecus afarensis,  found  by Maurice  Taieb  and Donald  Johanson in the Hadar region of Ethiopia

1974 CE: Haile Selassie, the last remaining monarch in Africa, in Ethiopia,  loses power

1974 CE: Sobukwe banned  for five more years

1974 CE: Sixth (seventh) Pan-African  Congress in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

1974 CE: Portuguese  forced to leave Mozambique

1975 CE: Dahomey  changes name to Benin

1975 CE: Remains  of an Australopithecine group  of thirteen  adults  and  children discovered near Hadar in Ethiopia 

1975 CE: Portugal  negotiates with Frelimo over the independence of Mozambique

1975 CE: Alexander  von Wurthenau writes Unexpected Faces in Ancient  America

1976 CE: Human footprints from 3¼ million years ago discovered  near an extinct volcano near Olduvai

1976 CE: Hector  Petersen,  only  13  years  old,  leads an uprising  by thousands of students to end the discriminatory educational practices in South Africa and is killed

1976 CE: United  Eritrean  forces  push  all government  forces  out  of Eritrea  but Osman  breaks  away  from  EPLF and  forms  the  Eritrean  Liberation Front–Popular Liberation Front (ELF–PLF)

1977, 1981, and 1994 CE: Roderick  and Susan McIntosh excavate Jenne-Jeno

1977 CE: British  government  refuses to  return  the  mask  of Queen  Idia  during FESTA (2nd World Black-African Festival of Arts)

1977 CE: (August 21) Biko detained  by the Eastern Cape security police and held in Port Elizabeth,  and dies from brain damage

1977 CE: Festival of Black and African Countries in Lagos, Nigeria

1978 CE: Ethiopia  defeats Eritrea with the help of the Soviet Union and Cuba

1979 CE: Côte d’Ivoire is the world’s leading producer of cocoa

1980 CE: Michael Bradley writes The Black Discovery  of America

1980 CE: Nigerians  pay over $1,200,000 for four Benin art pieces at an auction

1980 CE:  Reformation and  United  People’s Party  calls  for  the  resignation of Liberian president William R. Tolbert Jr., installs Master Sergeant Samuel Doe, executes Tolbert,  and the economy plunges

1983 CE: Conflict resumes between the Anya Nya and the Sudan government  when President Nimeiri imposes Shari’a law, an Islamic code, which causes the death of more than 1.5 million Sudanese by 1997

1983 CE: The Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) forms

1989 CE: Opposition from the National Patriotic  Front of Liberia flares

1990s CE: West African peacekeeping troops (ECOMOS) succeed in bringing competing  factions in Liberia to negotiations

1990s CE: American  revolutionaries cross the  Limpopo  River in South  Africa to fight against apartheid

1990s CE: Fastest-growing religion in the Americas is, reportedly, Ogun,  a deriva- tive of Yoruba

1990 CE: (February  18) Nelson Mandela released from prison

1990 CE: F. W. de Klerk releases the ban on the African National Congress and the Pan-Africanist  Congress

1991 CE: UN-controlled referendum allows  Eritreans  to declare  for independence and pulls back Ethiopian army

1991 CE: Mandela elected president  of the ANC,  Oliver  Tambo  is made  national chairman

1992 CE: Frelimo subdues the rebels and gets a peace treaty

1993 CE: (May  24) Eritreans  declare independence and  name  Asmara  the capital; Ethiopia  is completely cut off from the Red Sea

1993 CE: (June 27) Melchi Ndadaye of the Front  for Democracy  wins the election in Burundi

1993 CE: (October 21) Ndadaye is murdered

1993 CE: Nelson Mandela wins the Nobel Peace Prize in conjunction with De Klerk, the former white president.

1994 CE: Nelson  Mandela becomes  the  first democratically elected president  of South Africa

1994 CE: Organized slaughter  of roughly  one million ethnic Tutsis and their Hutu supporters in Rwanda within  100  days  and  Western  countries  refuse to  inter- vene; the Tutsi-controlled Rwandan Patriotic  Front takes over the country 

1996 CE: Vice-governor  of South Kivu Province issues an order that the Banyamulenge  leave the country  or face the death  penalty  and the anti-Mobutu forces combine  to form the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Zaire (AFDL)

1996 CE: US government  sends  $20  million  of military  equipment  through the “front-line” states of Ethiopia,  Eritrea, and Uganda to help the Sudanese opposi- tion overthrow the Khartoum regime

1996–1997 CE: First Congo  Civil War leads to the overthrow of President Mobutu Sese Seko and changing  the name of the nation  back to Democratic Republic  of Congo

1997 CE: (May 17) Mobutu leaves and Kabila takes power in Congo

1997 CE: (May  25)  Armed  Forces  Revolutionary Council  overthrows President Kabbah  in Sierra Leone

1997 CE: Charles Taylor, of the National Patriotic  Party, wins the election in Liberia but civil war breaks out

1998 CE: (March)  President Kabbah  is reinstated in a democratic election in Sierra Leone

1998 CE: (August 2) Kabila removes all ethnic Tutsis from government  and orders all Rwandan and  Ugandan  officials out  of the Democratic Republic  of Congo, resulting  in the Second Congo Civil War which last until 2002  and is referred  to as Africa’s World War

1999 CE: Attempt  to overthrow the government  in Freetown  results  in a massive loss of life and destruction of property

1999 CE: (July 7) President  Kabbah  and  the  Revolutionary United  Front  (RUF) leader, Foday Sankoh, sign the Lome Peace Agreement providing amnesty to members of the RUF and turn the RUF into a political party

1999 CE: Sierra Leone declares a state of emergency

 2000 CE: (May 8) RUF kills twenty people protesting RUF’s violation  of Lome

2000 CE: (May  29)  Nigerian  Civil War  receives closure  when  the  Guardian  of Lagos writes that President Olusegun  Obasanjo commuted  to retirement the dismissal of all military persons who fought for the breakaway state of Biafra

2001 CE: (July) The NEPAD strategic  framework originates  with a mandate given to  the  five initiating  heads  of state  (Algeria,  Egypt,  Nigeria,  Senegal, South Africa) by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to develop an integrated socioeconomic  development framework for Africa and  is formally  adopted by the OAU at its 37th summit

2001 CE: (September)  Namibia files lawsuit  to gain $2 billion in reparations from Germany

2002 CE: African Union replaces the Organization of African Unity

2002 CE: Sahelanthropus tchadensis, the oldest known  fossil of a hominid,  dated to 7 million years, found in Chad

2002 CE: Belgium admits to committing the murder  of Patrice Lumumba

2002 CE: (July) African Union discussed in South Africa at the seminal assembly of African states

2003 CE: President Gbagbo  and rebel leaders sign accords creating a government  of national unity in Côte d’Ivoire

2003 and 2004 CE: Series of conferences,  initiated  by President Abdoulaye  Wade of Senegal, takes  place  to  discuss the  inclusion  of Africans  in the  Americas  and Europe in the African Union as a sixth region

2004 CE: (August)  German  government  apologizes  for  the  genocide  during  the Herero  uprising 

2004 CE: (October 6–9) First Conference  of Intellectuals of Africa and of the Diaspora organized  by the African Union in collaboration with the Republic  of Senegal held in Dakar,  Senegal

2004 CE: Thabo  Mbeki  wins the South  African  election,  beating  out  the Inkatha Freedom Party and the Democratic Alliance

2005 CE: African Leaders Summit under the auspices of the African Union in Sirte, Libya

2005 CE: Agreement between  the Southern  People’s Liberation Movement and the Sudanese government ends the conflict between the Anya Nya and the Sudan government

2005 CE: John Garang  becomes president  of the Republic of Sudan but dies in July 2005 in a helicopter  crash

2006 CE: Former  Liberian  leader Charles  Taylor,  who had been given sanctuary in Nigeria in 2003, is arrested  and handed  over to the United Nations War Tribunal in Sierra Leone

2006 CE: Ellen Sirleaf Johnson  is elected president  of Liberia,  becoming  the first female leader in modern  times to run an African nation

2006 CE: Ethiopian paleontologist Zeresenay Alemseged found the fossil remains of Selam, a hominid  of the  A.  Afarensis  in the  Awash  River Valley of Ethiopia, dating to 3.36 million years ago.

2006 CE: South Africa becomes the first African country, and the fifth in the world, to allow same-sex unions.

2007 CE: Disputed Kenyan presidential elections lead to violence in which more than 1,500 die.

2007 CE: Ghana’s President John Kufuor says off-shore oil reserves total 3 billion barrels and will make Ghana a major producer. 

2007 CE: Madagascar’s President Ravalomanana opens 3.3 billion dollar nickel cobalt mining project in Tamatave. Mine said to be largest of its kind in the world.

2008 CE: - Following a long dispute an agreement is reached and Nigeria finally hands over the Bakassi peninsula to Cameroon.

2008 CE: Nigeria receives assurance from Iran that it will assist in nuclear technology so that Nigeria can increase its generation of electricity.

2009 CE: - Hundreds die in northeastern Nigeria after the Boko Haram Islamist movement launches a campaign of violence in a bid to have Sharia law imposed on the country. 

2009 CE: Libya's leader Muammar Gadhafi becomes the president of the AU and promotes his vision of the “United States of Africa.” 

2010 CE: First round of presidential election. Mr Gbagbo comes first with 38%, not enough to win outright. Former premier Alassane Ouattara is second with 32%. A run-off vote slated for November.

2010 CE: Election commission declares Mr Ouattara, the candidate supported by France, the winner of the run-off. Mr Gbagbo refuses to accept result and dispute between the two camps soon escalates into violence.

2010 CE: South Africa hosts the World Cup football tournament.

2010 CE: Wangari Maathai, first African woman to receive the Nobel Prize, dies. Noted for her environmental campaign, she is given a state funeral. 

2011 CE: The killing of 34 striking miners at the Marikana platinum mine shocked South Africa

2011 CE:  French troops surround the residence of Laurent Gbagbo and eventually he is captured and handed to the International Criminal Court in The Hague to face charges of crimes against humanity. The action produces massive outrage and stiff tension in Ivory Coast and throughout the African world.

2011: Gadhafi is brutally assassinated.

2012 CE: South Africa’s interior minister Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma becomes the first woman to be elected head of the African Union Commission. 

2012 CE: - Chadian President Idriss Deby calls on countries neighbouring northern Nigeria to set up a joint military force to tackle Boko Haram militants as they continue their attacks. 

2013 CE:  Uhuru Kenyatta, the son of Kenya's first president, wins presidential election with just over 50% of the vote. International Criminal Court (ICC) drops charges against Francis Muthaura, a co-accused of Mr Kenyatta, over the 2007 election violence.

2013 CE: The British government says it sincerely regrets the torture of thousands of Kenyans during the suppression of the Mau Mau insurgency in the 1950s and promises £20m in compensation.

2013 CE:  Ethiopia and Egypt agree to hold talks to ease tensions over the building of an Ethiopian dam on the Blue Nile. Egypt worries the dam will reduce vital water supply.

2013 CE: De Beers completes its move from London to Gaborone in Botswana, a step that should place Botswana a hub for diamond sales. 

2013 CE: Former president Nelson Mandela, the Father of the South African Nation, dies, aged 95. 

2013 CE:  President Kiir dismisses entire cabinet and Vice-President Riek Machar in a power struggle within the governing Sudan People's Liberation Movement.

2013 CE:  Hundreds of people die in clashes between rival army factions after President Kiir accuses his former deputy, Riek Machar, of plotting a coup. Mr Machar denies the allegation. The fighting exacerbates existing tensions between the Dinka and Nuer ethnic groups.

2014 CE: South Sudan government and rebels agree to attend peace talks in Ethiopia and express confidence in success. 


Read 4739 times Last modified on Saturday, 14 June 2014 20:13


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